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Sinclair ZX Spectrum

Vital Statistics

Introduced April 1982 (16K and 48K versions)
Retired: December 1990 (Spectrum +3), 1992 (Spectrum +2B)
Price: £125 (16K) or £175 (48K) later reduced to £129.95 in 1983, £179.95 (Spectrum + and 128), £149 (Spectrum +2), £249 (Spectrum +3) later £199
Quantity Sold: approx 8M including 90,000 Spectrum+ 128K.
Countries: UK and Europe (in USA, Timex-Sinclair TS2068)
Dimensions: 233x144x30mm (16K/48K), 319x149x38mm (+)
Weight:552g (Original 16K/48K model)
Ports: Ear/Mic (for tape playback/record respectively), 9V DC in, Z80 expansion bus and RF out. (Spectrum 128 and up also RGB, MIDI-out, 2 x joystick ports, RS232 port, parallel port, 2nd disk drive port
CPU: Zilog Z80A (3.5 MHz)
Usable RAM: 16K (16K), 48K (48K/+), 128K (others)
Built-in ROM: 16K (16K/48K/+), 32K (128), 64K (+2/+3)
Colours: 8 colours plus 8 flashing and 8 bright equivalents
Graphics: 256x192
Sound: Beeper on 16K,48K,and +, MIDI-out via Yamaha AY-3-8912 on Spectrum 128 and up
Built-in Language: Sinclair BASIC
Codenames: ZX-82 (Spectrum, Spectrum+), Derby (Spectrum +128K)

Technical Detail ...

What's it like today?

Fun Factor: 5/5
/Price (Poor - BNIB/Mint):
48K 20-150
Spectrum+ 20-150
Spectrum 128 75-200
Spectrum +2 (grey) 25-85
Spectrum +2B (black) 25-95
Spectrum +3 £30-£90

The ZX Spectrum was by far the most widely known home computer of the 1980s - sold in their millions, it was truly a major upgrade over the ZX81 it replaced. Featuring colour and sound, and a lot more memory, it paved the way for home computer games as we know them today. Initially, in April 1982, there were two models available: The Spectrum 16K, available for £125 and the Spectrum 48K for £175, the only difference being the amount of RAM. Later, the 16K model's price was dropped to £99 and the 48K down to £129.

In October 1984, the Spectrum+ was released for £179.95 in order to address customer complaints over the rubber keyboard on the original Spectrum. Since the launch of the Spectrum it's looks had been somewhat revolutionary, but two years on it was looking small, insignificant, and dated. Furthermore, issues with the original's keyboard were well known, and a number of manufacturers were successfully selling third-party keyboards as replacements for the Spectrum rubber keyboard - Sinclair wanted to compete with them. This revised keyboard still used the underlying rubber membrane, but had more professional plastic key caps, not unlike those found on the Sinclair QL, released the same year. It also had a much larger space bar and Enter key.

Another positive addition was a reset button on the side of the casing. With the original spectrum no facility existed to power down or reset the machine, short of pulling the power plug out. Over time, this could cause the connector to become loose and reset itself inadvertently, so having a proper reset button was a big deal!

For existing Spectrum owners, the Spectrum+ keyboard could be purchased as a home-upgrade kit for £50.



In September 1985, the Spectrum line got a much needed upgrade with the release of the Spectrum 128.

Initially it was launched at the SIMO '85 trade show in Spain through Sinclair's Spanish distributor, Investrónica, not the home market of the UK. This was because Sinclair still had a large number of unsold 48K units in its warehouse, and wanted to ensure sales of the new system wouldn't impede the sale of existing stock. Investrónica had previously helped Sinclair adapt their Spectrum+ for the Spanish market, where the government had imposed a special tax on home computers below 64K that did not support the Spanish alphabet and support messages in Spanish. Sales of the 128 began in Spain in the second half of 1985, and in the UK half a year later, in January 1986 for a retail price of £179.95. Sadly this meant that they missed the important Christmas selling season for the new model.

The 128 machine boasted 128K of RAM, with this extra memory being 'paged' into the top 16K of memory when needed. It could also be used as a RAM disk, so several programs could be stored in memory at the same time.

It also got a new 3-channel sound chip in the form of the Yamaha AY-3-8912, which can also be found in the Vectrex, MSX, Amstrad CPC range, and Atari ST/STFM. It also received new peripheral ports on the back (MIDI compatibility for the AY-3-8912, RS232 serial port, and an RGB monitor port), plus an improved version of Sinclair BASIC. To support the new BASIC commands, it came with twice the ROM size (32K) of the earlier models. One key difference between the 128 and earlier models is the absence of an internal speaker. All audio is instead output via the Audio Out socket at the back.

In Spain, an external keypad was sold with the 128 which could be plugged into an RJ12 socket on the left hand side towards the front. This peripheral was supposed to retail for £19.95 in the UK, but was never made available. The later +2 ROM retained the routines for the keypad, and so it can support one. These routines were removed when Amstrad reworked the entire hardware and ROM for the +2A and +3.

Spanish 128s can be easily distinguished from their UK counterparts as they have a white '128K' logo, whilst English models have the logo in red.



In April 1986, shortly after the launch of the 128 in the UK, Amstrad PLC bought Sinclair Research, and continued the line with the release of the Spectrum +2 in 1987, which featured a built-in cassette recorder in the same way Amstrad's CPC464 had. and a proper typewriter-style keyboard. This keyboard also omitted the BASIC keywords seen on the Sinclair machines, with the exception of the commonly used LOAD, RUN, and CODE. Aside from these changes, it was essentially a Spectrum 128 inside. Just as with the Spectrum 128, the system offered a startup menu from which you could choose to boot into 48K BASIC (which still had the support for single keypress keyword entry) or 128K BASIC in which all words had to be keyed in full. The main menu screen lacked the 'Tape Test' the 128 had, and the ROM was altered to display 'Amstrad' in the copyright message on startup. Strangely, these ROM changes did introduce some compatibility issues with software that accessed ROM routines at specific addresses. The new unit also got two built-in joystick ports which were Sinclair Interface I standard, not Kempston).

Due to a reduction in production costs of the +2 over the 128, its retail price started at £149. The power supply provided with this new grey machine was a grey version of the same PSU supplied with the Spectrum+ and Spectrum 128.

The Spectrum +2 succeeded in reviving sales of the Spectrum line, commonly released in the "James Bond 007 Action Pack" which came complete with a lightgun and game based on the new James Bond film, the Living Daylights.


Amstrad's final major model release in the then struggling 8-bit home computer market was the Spectrum +3, released in 1988 at a retail price of £249. It replaced the +2's 'datacorder' with a built-in 3" floppy disk drive (similar to those used in Amstrad's CPC664 and 6128 computers) and got a black case. Only a small amount of software was officially released on floppy disk for the Spectrum, but many owners copied their cassette-based games to disk for the larger capacity and faster loading times. It was the only Spectrum model capable of running the CP/M operating system without external hardware.

It came with two new 16K ROM chips: one to hold the +3's disk operating system (a modified version of Amstrad's PCWDOS), called +3DOS, and another to hold the second part of the reorganised 128 ROM. These further ROM changes resulted in even more incompatibilities with some older 48K and 128K games, and the Interface 1 was now incompatible, so Microdrive units were not usable. The ZX Spectrum +3 power supply provides the same voltages as the one supplied with +2A/B. This power supply has the same DIN connector so can also be used with the +2A/B. However, the power supply purchased with the +3 had "Sinclair +3" written on the casing.

Around the same time, a revised version of the +2 was released, the Spectrum +2A, coinciding with a move of production facilities from Hong Kong to Taiwan. It was basically a +3 in terms of circuitry but with the +2 datacorder, and in a black case. The Spectrum +2A/+3 motherboard (Amstrad part number Z70830) was designed such that it could be assembled without the floppy disk controller or associated logic and in its place a +2 style "datacorder" connected. Originally, Amstrad planned to introduce an additional disk interface for the +2A called the AMSTRAD SI-1, however this never materialised. If an external disk drive was added, the "+2A" on the system OS menu would change to a +3.The +2A can be distinguished from a +2 not only by the colour of its case (black instead of grey), but also because the datacorder button decals are printed above the buttons not on the buttons themselves. On the rear, the +2A has a printer port and the power supply socket is a DIN-type connector rather than the older thin barrel-type connector. The power supply of the ZX Spectrum +2A used the same pinout as the +3, so they are 100% compatible. However, the power supply purchased with the +2A/B had "Sinclair +2" written on its casing.

Production of the +3 ceased in December 1990, believed to be in response to Amstrad relaunching their CPC range. At the time, it was estimated about 15% of ZX Spectrums sold had been +3 models. Production of the +2B (the only other model then still in production) continued, as it was believed not to be in competition with other computers in Amstrad's product range. It was eventually discontinued in 1992

Two other submodels were released called the ZX Spectrum +2B and ZX Spectrum +3B. These were functionally similar in design to the Spectrum +2A and +3 respectively. The main electronic differences were changes to the generation of the audio output signal to resolve problems with audio clipping and the removal of the external tape loading input on the +2B. Unlike the +2A and +3, the Spectrum +2B and +3B do not share a common motherboard. The +2B board (AMSTRAD part number Z70833) has no provision for floppy disk controller circuitry and the +3B motherboard (Amstrad part number Z70835) has no provision for connecting an internal tape drive.

The Sinclair ZX Spectrum was sold as a standalone computer by popular high-street retailers including WH Smith, Boots, and John Menzies, but also came bundled in a variety of packages. The following describes the more common ones:

"Spectrum Six Pack"(version 1)

ZX Spectrum 48K with the following six titles: Horace Goes Skiing, Computer Scrabble, Make-a-Chip, Chess, Chequered Flag, and Survival.

"Spectrum Six Pack"(version 2)

ZX Spectrum+ with the following six titles: VU-3D, Computer Scrabble, Make-a-Chip, Chess, Chequered Flag, and Tasword Two

"Spectrum Plus Complete Outfit" (Dixons)

ZX Spectrum+ with free Datacorder, Spectravideo joystick, and 10-pack of software for £139.99. The 10-pack of software was the "Dixons Premier Collection for Your +2", consisting of: Freddy Hardest, Game Over, Legend of Kage, Movie, Athena, Arkanoid, Tank, Slap Fight, Head Over Heels, and Bat Man.

"Spectrum +2 128K Computer Outfit" (Dixons, 1987)

ZX Spectrum +2 (grey) with Spectravideo joystick and 10-pack of software including the "Soft 888 pack" (Punchy, Alien Destroyer, Treasure Island, Crazy Golf, Disco Dan, and Oh Mummy!), and several other titles.

"ZX Spectrum +2 Action Pack" (Sinclair, 1989)

ZX Spectrum +2A (black) with Magnum Lightphaser (light gun) and Sinclair SJS2 joystick

"ZX Spectrum +2 James Bond 007 Action Pack" (Sinclair, 1990)

ZX Spectrum +2A (black) with Magnum Lightphaser (light gun), Sinclair SJS2 joystick and three titles: Lord Bromley's Estate, Q's Armoury, and The Living Daylights - The Computer Game

"ZX Spectrum +2 Police Pack" (Spain only, 1988)

ZX Spectrum +2B (black) with 2 titles: Robocop 2 and Chase H.Q.


"ZX Spectrum +3 Action Pack" (Boots)

ZX Spectrum +3 with Cheetah 125+ or Sinclair SJS2 joystick

"ZX Spectrum +3 Complete Disk Drive Computer Outfit" (Sinclair)

ZX Spectrum +3 with the following titles on disk: Green Beret, The Great Escape, Mutants, Cobra, Yie Ar Kung Fu, and Short Circuit.



ZX Spectrum News

03 May 2016Spectrum Next announced

A presentation at Play Blackpool this past weekend announced new plans for [yet another] reimplementation of the venerable ZX Spectrum.

This one is the brainchild of Victor Trucco, Fabio Belavenuto, Rick Dickinson (who designed the hardware of the ZX80, ZX81, ZX Spectrum, Plus and QL), and Henrique Olifiers. The Spectrum Next is a totally open source project, and will have faster and more memory, new video modes, SD storage, and RGB/VGA/HDMI output.

Being a reimplementation at the hardware level means it will run all existing Spectrum (and ZX81!) software, and is also compatible with most hardware expansions out there.

The specs sheet is certainly quite interesting: Z80 CPU 3.5/7 MHz, 512Kb RAM, "ULA+" video featuring expanded video modes and colours, SD Card slot with DivMMC-compatible protocol, AY-3-8912 or FM2149 audio chips (selectable) with stereo output, DB9 joystick port(s) with selectable protocol, PS/2 port for mouse/external keyboard use, Multiface functionality for memory access/savegames/cheats etc, Mic and Ear ports for tape loading and saving, and an original external bus expansion port plus accelerator expansion port.

It is scheduled for production through a crowdfunding campaign in the near future – the date, time and amount to raise haven’t yet been announced. More news as and when we get it...

16 February 2016Sir Clive Sinclair launches sleek Vega+ hand-held console

Legendary British entrepreneur Sir Clive Sinclair has launched a hand-held console based on his classic ZX Spectrum system from the 1980s.

This is the second incarnation of the Vega, which was first revealed as an Indiegogo crowdfunding project last year . The original machine hit its 100,000 target in just two days - but the newer version is sleeker and will be able to connect to the internet. "The user will also be able to download additional games free of charge from the thousands that are available on the web, so there is no need for users to pay any more than the cost of the basic product, which will be in the region of 100," explained Retro Computers Ltd, the Luton-based company developing the console.

The team behind the new console say they have completed development and the prototype is ready to go into production. There's even a choice of three different colours: red, blue or white. According to the Indiegogo campaign, the Sinclair ZX Spectrum Vega+ is scheduled to launch in September 2016.

17 January 2016Dingo v1.3 released for ZX Spectrum

The original version of this game was an arcade machine made by A.C.G also known as Ultimate Play the Game in 1983 and its a game that looks very much like their classic Spectrum game, Sabre Wulf. The game has never seen any other commercial releases, but it was also remade for the PC in 2008 for a competition, and ported to OSX in 2011.

Your mission is to dash around the melon field and collect all the fruit there, to complete your mission. Your enemies are the Dingos they should be avoided as they will stomp the life out of you if they get too near, and koala bears only have one life (well, three actually). Sometimes the Dingoes will also collect fruit by stomping on it and throw it at Big Ted which is also fatalif they hit that is.

Copyright for the game idea is held by A.C.G. who made the original arcade game in 1983. This remake was programmed by S. Borgquist (aka Sokurah), 2011, and updated Jan 2016, with graphics from Mark. R. Jones.

You can read more about it, or download the game for free from World of Spectrum or from Tardis Remakes.

08 December 2015Chrimblast! New Shoot Em Up for the ZX Spectrum

World of Spectrum user Rtape has announced the release of his entry for the ZX-DEV 2015 comp Chrimblast!, a Shoot em Up game where you have to shoot the enemies and collect the presents (!!!).

The game has 8 levels, but it is actually a very well-done game with nice graphics and good background music. The sprite flickering that the author warned on his post is the downside of the game, but it doesnt hurt the gameplay at all.

The game plays AY sound whether you're on a 48K or 128K Speccy, so on 48K it is best to turn the music off.

The game can be download for free from here

02 July 2015Recreated Spectrum launched

For Speccy fans, it's been a little while since the Kickstarter campaign by Elite Systems founder Steve Wilcox raised the 60,000 needed to build their new project, but what is now being called the "Recreated Spectrum" is now available to purchase.

While the machine itself looks pretty much identical (it's a few grammes lighter) the actual computing is done by a smartphone or tablet computer, so the unit you actually purchase is a Bluetooth keyboard.

You can download a free app and then play games and even programme in BASIC!

Comparing it side-by-side with a pristine model from the 80s you would be hard pressed to tell them apart. The initial run of 5,000 has sold out, but interest is high and it looks like the Spectrum may once again appear in shops.

Visit the dedicated website here!

...see more ZX Spectrum news...

This page was last updated on 22nd April 2015.